Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis by Alexander M. Cherkashin, technique mastered by the lead author, Mikhail L. Samchukov, MD. Read Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis book reviews & author details and Mikhail L. Samchukov, MD, Associate Director of Ilizarov Research, Texas. Jason B. Cope, Mikhail L. Samchukov, Alexander M. Cherkashin Mechanisms of New Bone Formation During Distraction Osteogenesis: A Preliminary Report.

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The technical errors are those that are made during a surgical procedure or during application of a distraction device [ Table 2 ]. Indigenous internal devices are also economical and locally available.

Similar to the intraoral device classification system, the alveolar ridge devices can be classified as [ Figure 2 ] tooth-borne, bone-borne, and hybrid based on their fixation points.

BMPs are potent inducers of osteogenesis both during embryological bone formation and in fracture repair. The introduction of these intraoral bone-bourne devices have eliminated the need for bulky, cumbersome extraoral distraction devices which had problems such as external scars, osteogenesiis tract infections, nerve or tooth bud injuries and poor patient compliance.

Fluid flow shear stress stimulates human osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through multiple interacting and competing signal transduction pathways. Next, the periodontal ligament distraftion gradually stretched via distraction of the tooth-bearing segment and new bone is created mesial to the distally moving tooth. Specific complications The samcuukov complications of DO are categorised as intra-operative, intradistraction and post-distraction.

The intraoperative complications seen during DO include bleeding, neurosensory defects, inadequate osteotomy, bone fracture and last, but not the least those associated with distraction device.

The distracted limb muscle has been noted to increase in weight during the distraction process but return to normal when the distraction ends. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BMP-2 and PCNA both appeared initially at the edge of the osteogenesis, but tended to disappear after 14 days. Midface advancement by gradual distraction. Bifocal distraction osteogenesis for mandibular defect healing: Not only the bone but also the soft tissue is distracted, so that the cranlofacial bone is permanently stabilized.

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Razdolsky Y, Pensler JM. Two main methods that are used for cast analysis are direct measurement and occlusogram analysis. Indigenous extra osseous alveolar distractor.

Hypotrophic regenerate A hypotrophic regenerate is characterised by delay or lack of mineralisation of the distraction osteoyenesis [ Figure 4 ]. Proliferation of masseter myocytes after distraction osteogenesis of the porcine mandible.

Closure of posttraumatic and postoperative skull defects is an important subject of debate. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. This comprehensive, full-color text presents the latest information on extraoral and intraoral distraction appliances, including tooth-borne, bone-borne, and hybrid fixation methods.

Walker DA, Nish I. By learning from the orthopedic and initial craniofacial distraction experience, clinicians using osteodistraction to treat deformities of the head and neck can minimize the potential complications associated with distraction osteogenesis. The other causes of an asymmetrical distraction are improper adjustment of the device, asymmetric maxillary segments and dense fibrosis in a particular segment. Secondly, judicious placement of the sites of pins in less conspicuous areas can also reduce the stigma associated with these scars.

Although the technique has a great potential, it is not without inherent complications, most of which have already been encountered during the long history of limb lengthening and two decades of craniofacial osteodistraction.

The technical complications relate to the quality of regenerate, axial deviations, soft-tissue components and infection [ Table 3 ].

Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis

A histomorphic and enzyme histochemical study of masticatory muscles affected by distraction osteogenesis of mandible. Distraction osteogenesis to widen the mandible. A hypotrophic regenerate can result from strategic errors including poor craiofacial selection. Anterior open bite Distraction devices for sagittal mandibular advancement if placed parallel to the mandibular plane commonly lead to an anterior open craniofaciial [ Figure 7 ]. Mosby- Medical – pages.


An expensive proprietary distractor is beyond the reach of the common man. Epithelium completely gained normalcy at 8 weeks. The strengths and weakness of the muscle is related to the ability of the muscle fibres to add the contractile component in adjustment to the new length.

Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis : Alexander M. Cherkashin :

They concluded that there is a posteriorly directed vector that is the reaction force to the action of distraction, and that anteriorly directed forces on the proximal osteogejesis are the pull of the masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoids along with class II elastics. The technique of distraction is comparatively new for the craniofacial region when compared with the axial skeleton where the experience is craniotacial than 50 years old.

The five zones are: At 2 months after distraction, the initial gap was filled with mineralized bone and showed remodeling areas, mainly in dense cortical zones. However, artificial materials used currently for cranioplasty, can cause immune reaction in pediatric cases.

Other animals studies supporting this idea, showed equal bone strength and callus formation between a latency duration of 0 and 7 days in the sheep model.