The ESAP experiment in Zimbabwe is widely seen as an almost unmitigated failure and the cause of the economic crisis of the late s. An Introduction to ESAP: Zimbabwe By David Coltart. 31st January Danish Volunteer Service Development Workers Meeting. ESAP’S FABLES II. BY RICHARD SAUNDERS. Richard Saunders is SAR’s Zimbabwe correspondent. Zimbabwe’s Economic Structural Adjustment Programme.

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Teddy Brett and Simon Winter argue that Zimbabwe’s ills cannot be blamed solely on economic structural adjustment programmes.

Now, as Zimbabweans await the unveiling of a follow-on, second five-year program, rising popular displeasure with ESAP has brought pressure to bear on the government and its international backers for the re-evaluation of what has proven in practice to be a treacherous model of development.

The ESAP programme that began in was zimbbawe to do this.

Part Three…fair play demanded from US. Hence, if nothing is done to cushion such negative effects, the participation of girls will continue to be severely affected. Growth was poor, employment contracted, many firms closed, and social services deteriorated. The cruellest irony of ESAP is perhaps that a policy which aimed to halve the government deficit and finance a higher short- term debt through expanded industrialisation, in reality ended by doubling the national debt, putting additional pressure on the government deficit and stunting an anticipated process of locally- driven re-industrialisation.

Speech by David Coltart: An Introduction to ESAP: Zimbabwe 1992

The credibility of these policies is difficult to judge and heavily disputed. Zimbabwe has tried two contradictory policies since Dhliwayo notes that although devaluation has some notable consequences its success is that it enables imports of quality international goods and technological goods such as cell phones have dramatically increased. Metadata Show full item record. Share this on WhatsApp. These controls and allocations supported existing firms producing for the domestic market, and favoured workers with formal sector jobs.

However, the tension between the actions of an interventionist regime that distrusted capitalists, no matter whether white, black or foreign, and the needs of existing and, more especially, potential new entrants into the market, was very strong. Here we address two straightforward questions. First, old-style interventionism is not a viable way out of the present impasse.

Origins of the Zimbabwe crisis — Helen Suzman Foundation

At a time zimbabe Zimbabwe has, on the face of it, committed itself to multi-party democracy and at a time when the whole Southern African region is stabilising the following aspects of the Budget are disturbing: The deteriorating in terms of trade for primary exports meant that developing nations find themselves exporting more and more of their commodities to earn less and less from them.


However in Zimbabwe finally one can say ESAP was a failure because of its economic reforms which caused economic down turn.

Whatever one thinks of an IMF-imposed Structural Adjustment Programme, the fact of the matter is that unless it is implemented wholeheartedly and with the utmost vigour without any contradictions being allowed to remain in the system, it will fail.

So it did not come as a shock when the first phases of ESAP were announced, starting with government’s budget statement in July The one exception in this regard – large real growth in capital spending much of it construction – has been heavily dependent on donor injections of capital, and has raised further questions about how government will manage to meet new recurrent expenditures in a period of public service retrenchments and declining recurrent spending.

After announcing the SDA component inthe government took 18 months to appoint a coordinator the drought took much of the government’s attention during part of the program. The impact of cost recovery measures in education was almost immediate as parents simply withdrew children from school or postponed sending them to school. Meanwhile, accounts from rural clinics and hospitals have urgently noted the near collapse of health care services under the weight of cutbacks and imposed self-reliance.

Continued reduced overall real spending by government now points to systematic and increasing shortfalls in social infrastructure investments. This article evaluates these competing views in order to generate an informed assessment of the strengths and weaknesses zimbawe the policy regimes of the zimbabws and esaap s and concludes with an assessment of zkmbabwe impact and of what they suggest for the future.

According to Sounders about 22, public service employees have been retrenched, alongside large cutbacks in real recurrent ij on services. A “bread boycott” by township consumers lasted more than two weeks, and saw running street battles between riot police, and women and youth.

As I have said before, the essence of the Structural Adjustment Programme is the loosening up of the economy, the Land Bill and other Acts and actions I have mentioned above are a fundamental contradiction of that principle.

Hence the prognosis should have been good. With subsidies on processed maize meal removed, small-scale hammer millers stepped in to produce straight-run maize meal which is nutritionally better than roller meal at prices comparable to or lower than the old subsidized price of roller meal. In other words, the programme must be an end in itself, namely the economic revitalisation of this country, not a means to an end, namely the political survival of ZANU-PF.


Brett is the visiting professor in political studies at Wits University. This decrease implied diminished spending on common drugs, extension and preventative health services, zlmbabwe facilities and treatment, and other components of quality health care delivery. Humanities And Social Sciences Department: In a short time, ESAP’s World Bank-inspired reforms has ripped into the existing economic and social infrastructure, shifting zimvabwe focus of many mass-oriented development social programs away from redistribution towards management of defined and limited, even declining, public resources.

Remember me on this computer. In reality, growth slowed and became more erratic, averaging only 1. Material written specifically for AfricaFiles may be edited for length, clarity or inaccuracies. In the rural areas, the majority population was often forced to depend on government food aid. It does not seem to have been applied in countries where there is small government, low taxation, few foreign exchange controls and democratic zimbabwr.

Despite the drought the government continued the reforms, zimgabwe considerable progress in trade liberalization and domestic deregulation. The negative social and economic consequences of this shift were immediately and abundantly clear for ordinary Zimbabweans. Structural Adjustment and Zimbabwe’s Zimbbwe. If the private sector is hindered in any way the whole process can break down catastrophically.

What we will do is highlight the key challenges that will confront any regime that emerges to take up this challenge. This is an integral part of trade liberalisation and the removal of existing protections in place for the domestic economy. It was introduced in Zimbabwe in Octoberbut started in March after a meeting with aid agencies and the World Bank in Paris. In doctors and nurses began referring to “ESAP deaths,” described as deaths caused by the inability of patients to pay for the minimal length of time in the hospital, or for prescription medicine.

PEconomic Development. Architecture structure of the adjustment programe specifically in the in creating an enabling environment in respect to the overall macro-economic reforms in relation to the shelter industry is sketched. Response from aimbabwe grass roots Ordinary Zimbabweans are sorely aware of this process of rapid national impoverisation – the most tangible outcome of the modernising experts’ handiwork.

It is too embarrassing for Government to admit that it has formally abandoned socialism to zimbzbwe this elitist, tribally-based capitalism. It resulted in gender imbalances in the political, health and business sectors among others.